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Alexander invested many troops, eventually killing seventeen thousand Cathians in this battle, and the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot) was razed to the ground. The Umayyad Caliphate was the second Arab, Islamic caliphate established after the death of Muhammad.
A coalition was formed against Alexander by the Cathians, the people of Multan, who were very skilful in war. Mahmud of Ghazni appointed Malik Ayaz as the ruler of Lahore, Punjab during the Ghaznavid era., when the Muslim Umayyad army led by Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Southern Punjab in 712, by defeating Raja Dahir.
This civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in South Asia and Afghanistan.
Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artefacts have nevertheless been found.
However, Alexander had to encounter and reduce the tribes on the border of Punjab before entering the luxuriant plains.
Having taken a northeasterly direction, he marched against the Aspii (mountaineers), who offered vigorous resistance, but were subdued.